3.5  Genetic Modification and Biotechnology

big ninja

Essential Idea:

Scientists have developed techniques for

artificial manipulation of DNA, cells and organisms


  • PCR can be used to amplify small amounts of DNA
  • Gel electrophoresis is used to separate proteins or fragments of DNA according to size
  • DNA profiling involves comparison of DNA
  • Genetic modification is carried out by gene transfer between species
  • Clones are groups of genetically identical organisms, derived from a single original parent cell
  • Many plant species and some animal species have natural methods of cloning
  • Animals can be cloned at the embryo stage by breaking up the embryo into more than one group of cells
  • Methods have been developed for cloning adult animals using differentiated cells


  • Use of DNA profiling in paternity and forensic investigations
  • Gene transfer to bacteria using plasmids makes use of restriction endonucleases and DNA ligase
  • Assessment of the potential risks and benefits associated with genetic modification of crops
  • Production of cloned embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer


  • Design of an experiment to assess one factor affecting the rooting of stem cuttings
  • Analysis of examples of DNA profiles
  • Analysis of data on risks to monarch butterflies of Bt crops