B2  Biotechnology in Agriculture

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Essential Idea:

Crops can be modified to increase yields

and to obtain novel products


  • Transgenic organisms produce proteins that were not previously part of their species’ proteome
  • Genetic modification can be used to overcome environmental resistance to increase crop yields
  • Genetically modified crop plants can be used to produce novel products
  • Bioninformatics plays a role in identifying target genes
  • The target gene is linked to other sequences that control its expression
  • An open reading frame is a significant length of DNA from a start codon to a stop codon
  • Marker genes are used to indicate successful uptake
  • Recombinant DNA must be inserted into the plant cell and taken up by its chromosome or chloroplast DNA
  • Recombinant DNA can be introduced into whole plants, leaf discs or protoplasts
  • Recombinant DNA can be introduced by direct physical and chemical methods or indirectly by vectors


  • Use of tumour-inducing (Ti) plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to introduce glyphosate resistance into soybean crops
  • Genetic modification of tobacco mosaic virus to allow bulk production of Hepatitis B vaccine in tobacco plants
  • Production of Amflora potato (Solanum tuberosum) for paper and adhesive industries


  • Evaluation of data on the environmental impact of glyphosate-tolerant soybeans
  • Identification of an open reading frame (ORF)