Plant Phyla

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•  Recognition features of bryophyta, filicinophyta, coniferophyta and angiospermophyta

The kingdom Plantae contains 12 phyla – which includes bryophytes, filicinophytes, coniferophytes and angiospermophytes

  • These phyla can be differentiated according to a few key recognition features

bryophyte icon


  • Has no vascularisation (i.e. lacks xylem and phloem)
  • Has no ‘true’ leaves, roots or stems (are anchored by a root-like structure called a rhizoid)
  • Reproduce by releasing spores from sporangia (reproductive stalks)
  • Examples include mosses and liverworts

filicinophyte icon


  • Has vascularisation (i.e xylem and phloem)
  • Have leaves, roots and stems (leaves are pinnate – consisting of large fronds divided into leaflets)
  • Reproduce by releasing spores from clusters called sori on the underside of the leaves
  • Examples include ferns

coniferophyte icon


  • Has vascularisation
  • Have leaves, roots and stems (stems are woody and leaves are waxy and needle-like)
  • Reproduce by non-motile gametes (seeds) which are found in cones
  • Examples include pine trees and conifers

angiosperm icon


  • Has vascularisation
  • Have leaves, roots and stems (individual species may be highly variable in structure)
  • Reproduce by seeds produced in ovules within flowers (seeds may develop in fruits)
  • Examples include all flowering plants and grasses

Plant Phyla Recognition Features:

plant phyla table

Overview of Plant Phyla

plant phyla